GenWeb de la Basse Côte-Nord

Quebec Lower North Shore GenWeb

 

Le GenWeb de la Basse Côte-Nord est une composante du GenWeb du Québec et du Canada GenWeb.

The Lower North Shore GenWeb is part of the Quebec GenWeb and the Canada GenWeb Projects.


 

Canadian History Timeline

This timeline chronicles the ‘peopling’ of the Quebec Lower North Shore. It has been influenced by many events external to the region. This is an evolving document and readers are encouraged to e-mail corrections and additions to the list.

 

Early Maritime Archaic (ca. 8000-4500 years ago)

The earliest evidence of prehistoric inhabitants of the Quebec Lower North Shore and Labrador indicates that people arrived here at least by 8000 years ago, when the land was emerging from beneath the melting Laurentide ice sheet. These early ancestors of today’s Innu (Indian) peoples lived along the coast and hunted seals and walrus, in addition to fish, waterfowl, and a variety of land game, including caribou. The few surviving archaeological remains indicate they used triangular points and lanceolate spears or knives made of local quartz or quartzite, small round skin scrapers of the same types of material, and ground stone axes and gouges of slate and diorite. Burials dating to this period have been found beneath stone-capped mounds on the Labrador and Quebec shores the Strait of Belle Isle at Blanc Sablon and L’Anse Amour. The L’Anse Amour mound contained the skeleton of a12- year-old boy buried in an unusual face-down position with a large rock on his back, accompanied by stone tools and a primitive harpoon. Evidence of Early Maritime Archaic culture has been found as far north as Nain, Labrador. (Fitzhugh, W., 2003-2004)

 

Late Maritime Archaic (4500-3500 years ago)

Evidence for Late Maritime Archaic people is much more extensive along the Lower North Shore, with sites known from Petit Mecatina to Blanc Sablon. LMA people continued to utilize marine resources, and their tool kits included stemmed points and knives of flint and quartzite, stone fishing sinkers, and ground slate adzes and axes similar to finds from Newfoundland and Labrador. Many of these tools are made of Ramah Chert, a distinctive translucent stone found only in northern Labrador. Burials were placed in cemeteries rather than in mounds and were accompanied by deposits of red ocher “paint” and tools, many of which are found ritually broken or “killed” to release their spirits. LMA people spent summers living in multi-family longhouses on the outer coast. “Work at Petit Mecatina, Gros Mecatina and localities like Belles Amour are beginning to provide a consistent picture of a Lower North Shore late Maritime Archaic culture that differs consistently from that of Newfoundland and Labrador and maybe provisionally designated the Mecatina Complex,” according to Dr. William Fitzhugh, who has excavated several of LMA sites. (Fitzhugh, W., 2003-2004)

 

Groswater Culture Palaeo-Eskimos (2500-2000 years ago)

About 4000 years ago a culturally, linguistically, and probably racially-different people appeared in northern Labrador and spread as far south as Hopedale. These arctic-adapted people can be traced back through the Canadian arctic to Alaska and ultimately to Siberia. After more than 1000 years adapting to conditions in Labrador, their descendants spread south, arriving in Newfoundland and Quebec about 2500 years ago. The expansion of this early “Eskimo” culture was probably stimulated by the southward expansion of arctic sea ice during this time of global cooling. Evidence of Groswater Palaeo-Eskimos on the LNS is known by finds of colourful, tiny, finely-crafted harpoon points and notched knives, ground stone axes, large ‘eared’ skin scrapers, and small razor-like microblades. Most of these tools are made of chert (a flint-like stone) originating in western Newfoundland. Their small ‘tent houses’ have mid-passages and were heated and lit with small soapstone lamps fueled by sea mammal oil rather than by wood. Although their technology differed greatly from the historical Inuit, Groswater people had a very similar maritime-based way of life. (Fitzhugh 2003-2004)

 

Dorset Culture (2000-1500 years ago)

Groswater Palaeo-Eskimo culture disappeared from Labrador, Newfoundland and Quebec about 2000 years ago when a new Palaeo-Eskimo culture known as Dorset migrated south from the Central Arctic. In Labrador, Dorset culture replaced their Groswater predecessors, but in Newfoundland the new arrivals appear to have assimilated Groswater people, judging from the continuation of Groswater tools in Newfoundland Dorset sites. Dorset people seem not to have penetrated the Quebec LNS further west than St. Paul, perhaps because of Indian resistance. Dorset culture introduced many innovations that are seen in Thule Eskimo and later Inuit cultures, such as soapstone cooking pots, hand-drawn sleds with whalebone runners, and insulated earth-covered winter dwellings. Dorset culture disappeared from Newfoundland about 1500 years ago, but continued on in northern Labrador until the arrival of the ancestors of the modern Inuit, about A.D. 1300. (Fitzhugh, 2003-2004)

 

Intermediate Indian Period (3500-2000 years ago)

During the period when the eastern LNS was occupied by Groswater Palaeo-Eskimos, a succession of post-Maritime Archaic Indian cultures continued to occupy the inner reaches of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and interior Quebec-Labrador. However, following the disappearance of the Maritime Archaic tradition after 3500 years ago, Indian groups with western origins spread east along the coast, and eventually replaced Groswater Palaeo-Eskimos on the LNS ca. 2500 years ago and Dorset peoples in Newfoundland and Labrador after 1500 years ago.

 

These new Indian cultures are not as well-known on the LNS as in Newfoundland and Labrador, but they appear to have made less use of marine resources than earlier Indian or Palaeo-Eskimo peoples. Their sites are found on interior lakes and near the river-mouth on the coast, suggesting a dual adaptation to the interior and coastal like that of the historic Innu. Stemmed points and ground slate are replaced by notched points, leaf-shaped knives, large end-scrapers, and sometimes large caches of chipped preform blades – like the Stubbert cache from Kegaska – are found, made of Ramah chert or other exotic materials from the Upper North shore. These cache blades and occasional finds of copper implements or ornaments from the Great Lakes or Nova Scotia indicate growing involvement in long-distance trade and contacts. Although many sites of this period are known on the LNS, especially in villages at river-mouth locations, few have been excavated and many have been damaged by construction or unscientific excavation. (Fitzhugh, 2003-2004)

 

Late Indian Period (Innu culture) (2000 years ago to present)

Before the coming of the Europeans the ancestors of the Innu inhabited the Labrador Peninsula including portions of the Quebec Lower North Shore. They called their territory Nitassinan, “our land” as they still do today. During this period there is widespread evidence of cultural contacts, trade, and movement between the LNS, northern Quebec, Labrador, and Newfoundland, as shown by similarities in pottery, chipped stone tools, trade in exotic stone materials, dwelling forms, and art suggest that Innu groups living on the LNS shared a single culture with groups known from northern. Archeological excavations support the contention that the Innu are the descendants of almost 2000 years of uninterrupted Algonkian presence in the Quebec North Shore and Labrador. (Fitzhugh, 2003-2004)

 

Thule and Inuit Cultures (A.D. 1500 to present)    

One of the mysteries of LNS history is the question of Inuit settlement history and contacts. The prehistoric Thule Eskimo ancestors of today’s Inuit arrived in Northern Labrador about 700 years ago. Thule people were highly specialized arctic marine mammal hunters who hunted large whales, had rapid dogsled transport, and large skin boats. They rapidly replaced or assimilated Labrador Dorset peoples in northern Labrador and by A.D. 1600, aided by the Little Ice Age and expansion of the arctic pack ice, spread south to Hamilton Inlet and Cartwright. From there, enticed by raiding and trading prospects with Europeans, they made forays into the Straits, to Newfoundland, and as far west as St. Paul River.

The presence of Inuit people, place-names, oral history, and culture (dog sleds, fish spears, oil lamps, etc.), have been part of the LNS tradition for at least three hundred years. How this happened has never been determined. It has often been supposed that Inuit settled at least the eastern part of the LNS. So far, however, archaeological surveys have produced no evidence of Thule Eskimo settlements in the form of tent rings or winter sod houses.

On the other hand, recent archaeological work shows that Inuit people do seem to have been present on the LNS, even though they may no longer have been living in traditional native dwellings. Excavations at a 17th century Basque fishing and trading site at Petit Mecatina contain Inuit soap stone lamp and vessel fragments, and Inuit-style stone animal traps and a probable Inuit grave have been found at Jacques Cartier Bay near St. Augustine. These finds suggest that Inuit people were living with or were employed by early European visitors and settlers along this coast and that by this means Inuit traditions became part of LNS history. (Fitzhugh, 2003-2004)

Prior to present day, habitation on the Quebec Lower North Shore was by aboriginal Innu and Inuit. The two Innu peoples known for their established pattern of land and resource use were the Montagnais and Nascopie. The Innu and Inuit were kept apart not by recognized boundaries but rather by their cultural differences. Their paths did cross because they both relied on the caribou and again when the Innu moved to the Coast to hunt and gather food (click here / cliquez ici) .

 

Viking Vinland Voyages (ca. A.D. 1000)

The Vikings were the first Europeans known to have visited parts of what we know today as the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Having established a base camp at L’Anse aux Meadows on the Strait of Belle Isle it is almost certain that Vikings explored the Quebec North Shore since the Vinland sagas indicate contacts in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. So far, according to Dr. Fitzhugh, no Viking sites have been found nor evidence of their presence known from Native contact sites along the Quebec Lower North Shore.

In the Globe and Mail of 20 May 2000, Dr. William Fitzhugh was quoted: “… the Viking period was a kind of hinge in European history…” It was a time from which we went from early history and classical civilization into what we know as modern Europe and a modern world where people rapidly explored new frontiers and looked for new resources and connections. (Fitzhugh, 2003-2004)

 

Basque (A.D. 1530-1750)

The Basque may have sailed the Labrador coast as early as the 15th century and possibly had people working in the whale industry before Columbus or Cabot crossed the Atlantic. From archival records we know they were whaling at Red Bay, Labrador as early as 1530.

Their relationship with the Innu was amicable. Witnesses of the time refer to them trading with the Innu at Brest (Old Fort) and Grand Bay. A Basque historian referred to the Innu as mountaineers (Montagnais). They often helped prepare the fish on shore in exchange for a little biscuit, bread and cider. 

In contrast, the Inuit encountered at the same time along the coast were described as hostile, “stalking the fishermen and attacking with bows and arrows such spots as were left undefended”. From Chateaux Bay to Red Bay and Schooner Cove to Hare Harbour the Basque path can be traced by the red tiles they left behind. 

Discovery of two new Basque sites at Mecatina and Harve Boulet dating to the 17th or early 18th century provide opportunities for new studies of this early European group who were the first Europeans to exploit North America for the whale oil market. The Mecatina site appears to be particularly important as its occupation date is nearly a century later than other Basque sites, appears to have had fishing and trading rather than a whaling economy, and appears to have included Inuit laborers. Click here / cliquez ici for the web site that details the work of the Project. (Fitzhugh, 2003-2004)

This Coast was widely known to Basque, Breton and Saxon fishermen and whalers who came out each year to fish and hunt whales. (Browne, 1909)

 

1497

Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) claims Cape Breton Island (or Newfoundland) for England. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1500

Gaspar Corte Real, under the flag of the King of Portugal, gives the territory the name of Terra Corterealis. This new country has an immense river nine hundred miles long, eight hundred of which are navigable and which is called "Caneda" (sic). The country’s capital is Brest. (Morrison, 1978; Browne, 1909)

 

1534

Jacques Cartier explores the Gulf of St. Lawrence (click here / cliquez ici). He is known to have landed at various spots: 9 June 1534 at Baie des Chateaux; 10 June 1534 he enters the Harbour of Brest (today called Old Fort); 11 June celebrated Mass, the first recorded act of public worship in the New World; 12 June, erects the first cross in our country, at Baie des Rochers. Cartier’s arrival would lead to the beginning of colonization of the New World by Europeans. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1541

Cartier and Sieur de Roberval founded a settlement on St. Lawrence River, but it fails. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Sieur de Roberval exiled his neice Marguerite de la Roche of France on the Lower North Shore. Local legend demonstrates she was stranded on Harrington Island, the Island that Cartier named St. Marthe’s. (click here / cliquezici)  Marguerite would survive three summers and two winters, see the deaths of her baby (a significant historical point in the attempted colonization of the New World), her lover and her old Saxon nurse. She was later rescued by French fishermen and returned to tell her story in her native France (Morrison, 1978; Boyer, 1983). (click here / cliquez ici - Site 1; Site 2)

 

1549

In May 1549, Capt. Andres de Armendia gave written authority to a cooper Joan de Aguirre to sell pinnaces (light sailing ships) left in what he called, ‘el Rio de Blanc Samon ques en Tierra Neuba’ at the end of 1548 season. This is the earliest mention in a Spanish Basque document of a Canadian place name.” (Abbott, Benson, 1996)

 

1583

Sir Humphrey Gilbert, brother-in-law of Sir Walter Raleigh, sails for Newfoundland from England. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1588

English fishing fleet delays sailing to Newfoundland to participate in the defeat of Spanish Armada. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1598

The Marquis de la Roche (not to be confused with Jean Francois de la Roque, Sieur de Roberval) lands 40 convicts on Sable Island. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1603

Sieur de Monts obtains charter to all the land lying between 40th-46th degree north latitude. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1605

Port Royal, the first permanent French settlement in North America, founded. (Dickinson, 1993)

 

1608

Quebec (the city) founded by Samuel de Champlain. (Dickinson, 1993)

 

1610

Etienne Brule lives among Huron and is first European to see Great Lakes. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1613

Port Royal sacked by Samuel Argall and his pirates from Virginia. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1621

James I of England grants Acadia to Sir William Alexander who renames it New Scotland (Nova Scotia). (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1623

By this time, European goods had made life easier for the Innu. At Tadoussac and Quebec the Innu living near the French fur trading posts were using copper kettles and iron axes and wearing European style garments. (Romkey, 2003)

 

1627

The French created a system of land grants known as seigneuries in an attempt to promote colonization. French merchants, bureaucrats and military men called seigneurs were awarded large tracts of land for life and could pass on to heirs. (Charest, 1970)

 

Company of One Hundred Associates is founded to establish a French Empire in North America. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1629

Quebec (the city) captured by an English fleet led by David Kirke; he also captured Port Royal the year before. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1631

Charles de la Tour builds Fort La Tour (a.k.a. Fort Saint Marie) at the mouth of the Saint John River. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1632

British lose control of Acadia due to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Isaac de Razilly sails from France with 300 people hoping to establish a permanent French settlement in Acadia. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1636

French crown grants Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy to d'Aulnay; La Tour gets Nova Scotia Peninsula. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1639

Smallpox epidemic decimates Huron people; population reduced by 50%. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1640

Île des Esquimaux, opposite today’s St. Paul’s River, is the location of a great battle between the Innu and Inuit; more then a thousand Inuit were slain. It isn’t until 1757 at Battle Harbour on the Labrador Coast that the Inuit are defeated by the Innu (Montagnais). (Jackson, 1990; Dionne 1988)

 

1642

Montreal is founded. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1649

Attacks by the Iroquois disperse the Huron; disrupts fur trade over the next fifteen years. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1652

Massachusetts General Court licenses traders going from Massachusetts to Acadia. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1660

English Navigation Act prohibits foreigners from trading with English colonies. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1661

Francois Bissot a Norman immigrant who arrived in Canada some time prior to 1647 was granted Isle aux Eufs and rights to trade hunt and fish the whole of the North Shore of the St. Lawrence River to Sept-Iles and in the “Grand Anse, toward the country of the Eskimo where the Spaniards usually come to fish.” This was the Seigneury of Mingan. Bissot’s daughter Clair Francoise married Louis Jolliet. (Charest, 1970: Dionne, 1988)

 

1663

Louis XIV assumes personal control of New France. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1667

France, England and the Netherlands sign the Breda Treaty in July and, with this, England gives Acadia to France. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

First census of New France records 668 families, totaling 3,215 non-native inhabitants. (Dickinson, 1993)

 

1670

Hudson's Bay Company is formed and granted trade rights over all territory draining into Hudson's Bay. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1676

West Country merchants attempt to enforce restrictions on settlement in Newfoundland. (Prowse, 1895; Major, 2001)

 

1676-1694

Louis Jolliett formed a company to conduct fur trade on the North Shore he explored the St. Lawrence and became one of the seigneurs of Mingan. He traded as far north as Lac Naskapis, the present day Ashuanipi. As a reward for his discovery of the Mississippi he was granted the island of Anticosti as a seigneury. Throughout the year 1684, Jolliett traveled north to 56 deg. Latitude and returned to Quebec with the most complete and detailed maps of the coast to date. His journals were filled with detailed descriptions of the land and its people, including complete and precise descriptions of the Inuit. In 1685, a map of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf drawn by Jolliet himself was dispatched to the Ministry of the Colonies. A harbour, Harbour Jolliett, just west of Chevery bears his name and according to local folk lore he is said to have drowned there. History does not record how he died and little is known about the last 5 years of his life aside from the fact that he was appointed Professor of Hydrographic Studies at the Seminaire. He died in 1700. (Abbott, Benson, 1996)

 

1680

With the cease of the Basque whale fishery in the early 17th century, French fishermen and sealers took up settlements at the abandoned Basque shore stations and new locations along the Coast. The French government encouraged settlement by giving merchants "concessions". These concessions were exclusive license to fish and trade. Sieur Augustus de Courtemanche is given the concession from Kegaska to Hamilton Inlet on the Labrador. Courtemanche developed his concession into a thriving town at Baie Phelepeaux, now known as Bradore. (Budgel, 1987)

 

1682

French explorer La Salle reaches the mouth of the Mississippi. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1686

King James II and Louis XIV sign neutrality pact handing forts of St. John and Port Royal back to the French. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1690

Sir William Phips captures almost all of the French possessions in Acadia. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1697

Treaty of Ryswick restores the status quo between France and England; Acadia is returned to the French. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1700

Population of Acadia is 1,400. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1701

War of the Spanish Succession begins in Europe and spreads to North America (Queen Anne War) in 1702. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1702

Augustin Le Gardeur de Courtmanche established fishing and trading concession in southern Labrador stretching from Kegaska the Lower North Shore of the St. Lawrence to Hamilton Inlet. He built Fort Pontchartrain at Brador, where he employed about thirty Innu families. In 1697 Courtemanche had married the widow of Pierre Gratien Martel de Brouague. She was the granddaughter of old Francois Bissot and therefore family ties drew Courtemanche east along the St. Lawrence as they had done Jolliet. (Budgel, 1987)

 

1704

French forces destroy the English settlement at Bonavista, Newfoundland. (Prowse, 1895; Major, 2001)

 

1707

Port Royal is attacked twice by the English from Massachusetts. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1710

The English take Port Royal and name it Annapolis Royal. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1713

Treaty of Utrecht cedes French Acadia, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay and the "country of the Iroquois" to England. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1717

Courtemanche died and his place of commandant of the Coast was taken by son in-law Francois Martel de Brouague, who held the post until the British conquest in 1759-60. (Jackson, 1990)

 

1719

Construction of Louisbourg Fortress by the French begins on Ile Royale (Cape Breton Island). (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1720

Lord Baltimore sponsors expedition to bring settlers to Newfoundland. (Prowse, 1895; Major, 2001)

 

1721

800 Acadians take oath of allegiance to the French. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1744

France declares war on England (March 15). (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1745

Louisbourg surrenders to English after six-week siege (June 17). (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1748

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle returns Ile Royale (Cape Breton) and Ile Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) to French. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1749

Halifax is founded by British to counter French presence at Louisbourg. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1754

French and Indian War begins in North America; becomes Seven Years War when fighting spreads to Europe (1756). (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1755

Expulsion of the Acadians begins. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1758

Louisbourg captured again by the British (July 27). (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1759

British troops under Wolfe defeat French forces under Montcalm at Quebec; both generals are killed; Quebec falls. (Dickinson, 1993)

 

Proclamation issued by Governor of Nova Scotia invites New Englanders to settle there. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1760

Louisbourg Fortress demolished by the British. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Immediately after the French / English conquest, all French enterprises on the Lower North Shore passed into the hands of English merchants. (Charest, 1970: Dionne, 1988)

 

The Labrador Company (Adam Lymburner) becomes the exclusive owner of fishing and hunting rights of the North Shore. (Charest, 1970: Dionne, 1988)

 

1763

Treaty of Paris gives Canada (New France and Acadia) to England. Years of war between Britain and France ended with the Seven Years War and the 1763 Paris Treaty. This Treaty made Labrador a British territory. French merchants lost their concessions and British merchants began establishing new fishing posts and trading stations. This is a significant point to the North Shore because when the St. Pierre Islands were ceded back to France, the English loyalists were expelled and lost their property and lands. These are some of the same people that would later settle the Lower North Shore. (Charest, 1970: Dionne, 1988)

 

1767

Order given on board H.M. Frigate "Merlin" in Brador Harbour, 18 September by JNO. Hamilton (Lieut. Gov. of Newfoundlan) and sent to Capt'n Goodfellow and M. Louttit at the post of "Mikattina" (sic.) (Gros Mecantina) regarding disputes over seal fishing rights at Fort St. Augustine and Baie-de Shecatica (Schicattakawica), reinforced VF (Gros Mecatina (post) on lower St. Lawrence, near Belle Isle, Labrador Coast). Gros Macatina and Baie-de-Shecatica were French posts established in early 1700's (Labrador (fur trade letter), 1767)

 

1769

Prince Edward Island becomes a separate colony. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1774

Quebec Act guarantees religious freedom for Roman Catholic colonists. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1776

American Revolution begins. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Quebec withstands American siege. (Dickinson, 1993)

 

1783

Treaty of Versailles gives Americans fishing rights off Newfoundland, but not to dry or cure fish on land. (Prowse, 1895; Major, 2001)

 

1784

United Empire Loyalists arrive in Canada; New Brunswick becomes a separate colony to accommodate them. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1786

New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland allowed to import goods from the United States. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Not withstanding the restrictions of the Labrador Company, some Jerseymen establish in the region of Blanc Sablon. (Jackson, 1990; Dionne, 1988)

 

1791

Constitutional Act divides Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1794

Jay Treaty allows U.S. vessels into British ports of the West Indies; British agree to evacuate Ohio Valley forts. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1799

American competition for West Indies trade kills Liverpool, Nova Scotia's merchant fleet. It was this event that led to the settlement of Bradore by Captain William Randall Jones. (Perkins Journal, Radell, 1798)

 

Mary Anne Vane shipwrecked at Belles Amour. She subsequently married Louis Chevalier of St. Paul’s River. Their three offspring are the ancestors of the Chevalier, Jones and Robertson lineage on the Lower North Shore. (Huard, 1897;  Grenfell, 1910)

 

1800

Spain cedes Louisiana back to France. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1804

Fourteen hundred American ships are fishing off Labrador and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. (Jackson, 1990; Dionne, 1988)

 

1809

Napoleon's continental blockade cuts British access to Scandinavian timber. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1812

War of 1812 declared, allowing Maritime colonies to profit from illegal trade. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Red River settlement founded by Hudson's Bay Company. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1813

Amerindian Chief Tecumseh is killed at the Battle of Moraviantown. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1814

Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812; no territorial gains on either side. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1817

Famine in Newfoundland due to poor postwar economy. (Prowse, 1895; Major, 2001)

 

Nova Scotia population estimated at 78,345. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1818

49th parallel becomes British North America / U.S. border from Lake of the Woods to Rocky Mountains. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1820

Bankruptcy of the New Labrador Company, a Company that had benefited and monopolized trade on the Labrador by its owners, Lymburner Bros. Their leaving paved the way for new settler-entrepreneurs like Robertson of La Tabatiere, Kennedy of St. Augustine and Jones of Bradore. (Jackson, 1990; Dionne, 1988)

 

1821

Hudson's Bay Company merges with arch rivals, the Montreal-based North West Company. Merchants from Quebec and Halifax start trading with the residents of the Lower North Shore. This is done seasonally by schooner. The most famous of these traders was Captain Narcisse Blais. Navigation companies such as Clarke Steamships followed in their wake. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1825

Opening of Erie Canal gives New York competitive edge over Montreal. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1829

Opening of Lachine Canal restores level playing field for Montreal. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1831

Lord Alymer visits the Lower North Shore with a view to colonization (Coasters, 1999). (Abbott, Benson, 1996)

 

1833

Royal William, formerly operating between Quebec & Halifax, becomes first steamship to cross Atlantic. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Naturalist/Artist John James Audubon sails along the Lower North Shore and the Coast of Labrador in the schooner Ripley. He recorded his observations of flora and fauna as well as his visits with the local inhabitants such as Samuel Robertson at Sparr Point (near La Tabatiere) in his journal. (Abbott, Benson, 1996)

 

1837

Two separate rebellions, one in Upper and one in Lower Canada, fail to dislodge entrenched elites. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1839

Lord Durham's Report recommends union of Upper and Lower Canada, and responsible government. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1840

The Rev’d. Edward Cusack. Anglican Missionary at Gaspe, Quebec made one trip down the Coast in the summer. Going as far as East St. Modest, Labrador. He had heard about the people living there, and the fact that there were no clergy, from the Gaspe whalers who plied their trade along the coasts of the Canadian Labrador (Lower North Shore) and Labrador. He accompanied Mr. Samuel Tripp on his whaling expedition in the summer of 1840 and ministered to the people on the Coast. In the Gaspe Church registers for that year one finds a number of baptisms recorded of people living on the coast. It was not until about twenty-years later that an Anglican Missionary took up permanent residence on the Canadian Labrador. (Rev. C. Patterson)

 

1840

In a copy of a ledger of Bird, we find James Buckle, Bonne Esperance; John Buckle, Belles Amour; Richard Buckle, Bradore; William Buckle, Buckle's Point, Forteau; and Thomas Buckle, Capstan Island. This shows the distribution of the Buckle family along the Labrador and Canadian Labrador, which today is known has the Quebec Lower North Shore or La Basse Cote Nord. (MUN Newfoundland Room)

 

1841

Act of Union unites Upper and Lower Canada. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1842

New Brunswick / Maine boundary settled by Webster-Ashburton Treaty. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

The peopling of the Lower North Shore has gathered speed with the arrival of many fishermen from Berthier and Montmagny. (Abbott, Benson, 1996)

 

1845

Halifax native, Samuel Cunard, chooses Boston as the western terminus for his steamships. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1846

British Prime Minister, Robert Peel, announces Free Trade, ending old Colonial mercantile trade system. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1848

Responsible government established in Nova Scotia and Canada. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1854

Reciprocity (free trade) begins between British North America and the United States. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1855

First census (unofficial) of the Quebec Lower North Shore by L’Abbe Alexis Belanger. There were no families recorded for Harrington Harbour. The following French families were recorded: at Petit-Mécatina - Nazaire Mercier et son épouse, trois enfants, Pierre Thibauit, son épouse et six enfants, Flavien Boulanger, son épouse et un enfant, André Galibois, son épouse et cinq enfants et un engage, Louis Coulombe, son épouse et cinq enfants, Joseph Bussière, Pierre Prévereau, son épouse et 2 enfants; at Natagamiou - Thomas Collard, son êpouse et 4 enfants, F.X. Bilodeau, son épouse et un enfant. (Belanger, 1855)

 

William Whiteley sets up fishing premises at Bonne Esperance. (Whiteley, 1977)

 

1856

Mr. Charles C. Carpenter, a student of the Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N.H., made a trip to Labrador in a Newburyport fishing schooner, on account of his health. (Rev. C. Patterson)

 

1857

Queen Victoria names Ottawa as Canada's capital. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1858

 C. C Carpenter establishes a Mission and School at Caribou Island. (Abbott, Benson, 1996)

 

1860

Mansbridge and Griffin families living at Mutton Bay, according to St. Clement’s Parish Records; they were not there according to Belanger census of 1855 (see above).

 

1861

American Civil War begins. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

The Rev’d. John Petner Richmond went to the Coast. (Rev. C. Patterson)

 

1862

The Rev’d. Frederick John Cooksley went to the Coast. (See "Memorial Sketch of Frederick John Cooksley, Late Missionary of Labrador and Canada", with extracts from his diary, edited and arranged by his father, the Rev. W.G. Cooksley, M.A., Incumbent of St. Peter’s, Hammersmith, Published London, 1867. When the Bishop of Quebec died his last words were concerning Cooksley on the Labrador.) (Rev. C. Patterson)

 

1863

Chapel established at St. Augustine’s River until 1865. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner,1995)

 

1864

Quebec Conference sets out the terms of union for British North American colonies. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

The Rev’d. J. Wainwright was a Missionary on the Coast. It is possible that Wainwright was on the Coast in 1860 prior to J.P. Richmond, however, more research is needed to establish that fact. (Rev. C. Patterson)

 

1867

Confederation of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario forms the Dominion of Canada. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Sir John A. Macdonald becomes Canada's first prime minister. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1869

Hudson's Bay Company surrenders territorial rights to Rupert's Land to the Crown. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1869

Newfoundlanders reject Confederation in general election. (Prowse, 1895; Major, 2001)

 

1870

Louis Riel leads Metis resistance to Canadian authority; province of Manitoba created. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

The Rev’d. James Hepburn is on the Coast. (Rev. C. Patterson)

 

Influx of Newfoundlanders seeking better fishing grounds leads to increased population and settlement of Kegaska, Harrington Harbour, Tete-a-la-Baleine, Mutton Bay, La Tabatiere, St. Augustine, Old Fort Bay, St. Paul’s River, Middle Bay, Bradore and Blanc Sablon (click here / cliquez ici for details). First four families at Harrington Harbour are John Chislett, Tommy MacDonald with adopted adult son Edward Ransom, John B. Cox and Benny Simms all from West Point, La Poile Bay, Newfoundland. (Abbott, Benson, 1996)

 

This group of settlers brought with them many traditions including the following:

Mummering (click here / cliquez ici for details)
Weddings (click here / cliquez ici for details)

Entertainment (click here / cliquez ici for details)

 

1871

Treaty of Washington grants fishing rights on Grand Banks to United States. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

British Columbia joins Confederation. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

William Whiteley invented the codtrap, an innovation that would revolutionize the fishing industry for years to come. (Whiteley, 1977)

 

1872

The Rev’d. F. B. J. Allnatt established Mutton Bay as the Church of England headquarters. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reiner, 1995)

 

William Bobbitt and his family arrived from Burgeo, Newfoundland and settled in Harrington Harbour.

 

Thomas Bobbitt (brother to William) and his family arrived from Rose Blanche, Newfoundland and settled in Mutton Bay. (Abbott, Benson, 1996)

 

1873

Global economic depression begins. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1873

Anglican Chapel moved to Schooner Bay and named St. Clement’s. (Rev. C. Patterson)

 

1874

The Rev’d. James Hepburn is on the Coast again. (Rev. C. Patterson)

 

Essex wrecked at Wolf Bay. Captain with wife and crew rescued and winters with Gilbert Jones and family until they can be taken by dog team to Harve St. Pierre. (Sinclair, 1873)

 

1876

Intercolonial Railway linking central Canada and the Maritime provinces is completed. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1878

First year-around mail service commences on the Coast, using snow-shoe dog team and boat; Joseph Hebert was the first mail Courier. (Abbott, Benson, 1996; Dionne, 1988) Many others followed this occupation (click here / cliquez ici).

 

1880

Beginning of period when some French families of the Lower North Shore sent their children to school at Harve-Saint-Pierre. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1881

H. Y. Hind in his book, Explorations in the interior of the Labrador Peninsula mentions the finding of a rock tomb near the little port of Bradore, with the inscription upon it which is given in the poem (click here / cliquez ici). (Hind, 1863)

 

1892

Arrival of Dr. Grenfell to the coast of Labrador bringing the first medical care ever seen by the settlers and seasonal fishermen and their families. Click here / cliquez ici for details on his service to the Coast. (Abbott, Benson, 1996; Dionne, 1988)

 

1895

St. Clement’s Church, Mutton Bay built and consecrated in 1896; it was replaced in 1932. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1896

Anglican Christ Church built in Harrington Harbour (Coasters, 1999); consecrated in 1898. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1899

Boer War begins; the first Canadian troops to serve overseas are sent to South Africa; Gilbert Jones son of Gilbert and Louisa (nee Butt) of Wolf Bay was a sniper in that war. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Fox Bay uprising on the Island of Anticosti. Several present day Lower North Shore families were involved, namely Stubbert and Osborne (click here / cliquez ici).

 

1900

Federal immigration policy entices Eastern Europeans to Canadian West. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1901

Marconi receives the first transatlantic radio message at St. John's, Newfoundland. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1903

Anglican St Augustine's Church consecrated in St Augustine. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

Anglican St Paul's Church consecrated in St Paul's River. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1905

Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta are formed (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1906

Dr. Wilfred Grenfell visits the Lower North Shore and establishes a medical mission at Harrington Harbour. (Among The Deep Sea Fishers)

 

1907

First hospital built at Harrington Harbour by the Grenfell Mission. 

 

Full time medical care brought by Nova Scotian, Dr. Mather Hare. Click here / cliquez ici for pictures of Dr. Hare. (Among The Deep Sea Fishers)

 

Dr. Alfreda Withington volunteer physician and the first female doctor to serve with Dr. Grenfell spent the summer in Blanc Sablon before moving on to Indian Harbour, Labrador. (Withington, 1941)

 

Traditional health care was a key component of the Grenfell philosophy and was reflected in the long list of midwives along the Coast (click here / cliquez ici details).

 

In addition to medical care, Grenfell believed in imparting social and occupational skills, as witnessed by his industrial initiatives (click here / cliquez ici details).

 

1910

Federal government decides to establish the Royal Canadian Navy. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1911

Liberal government of Wilfred Laurier loses Reciprocity election; Robert Borden becomes Prime Minister. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1912

S.S.Titanic sinks off Newfoundland; recovered bodies are buried in Halifax cemetery. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1913

Canadian economy goes into a slump. (Francis and Smith, 1986; Lower, 1977; Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1914

Canada automatically enters First World War when Britain declares war on Germany (August 4). (Francis and Smith, 1986; Lower, 1977; Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

First telegraph service set up on the Lower North Shore as far east as Blanc Sablon. Charlotte Bobbitt-Jones (1870-1950) was the first telegraph operator in the Harrington Archipelago, ; the telegraph office was located at  Mainland, several miles northwest  of Hospital Island. (Dionne, 1988)

 

A sudden November hurricane in the region of Harrington Harbour catches many hunters at sea and a valiant row for home terminates in the lost of three lives (click here / cliquez ici). Lost that day were Albert Ransom, Enos Cox and James Herritt. (Hare, Presbyterian Witness, 1914)

 

1915

“Storm Warning Signal” along the Lower North Shore set up in Harrington Harbour (click here / cliquez ici). (Ransom)

 

1917

French munitions ship Mont Blanc catches fire and explodes in Halifax Harbor on December 6th; 2,000 killed. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Canadians capture Vimy Ridge after British and French attempts fail. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Income tax is introduced by the federal government as a "temporary wartime measure". (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1918

Under the War Measures Act, manufacture & sale of intoxicating beverages is prohibited in Canada. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1920

Clarke Steamship began its’ long shipping history to the Lower North Shore with ships the New Northland, the S. S. North Star, S. S. North Shore, S. S. Sable Isle and North Pioneer  that became the lifeline of the Coast. (Abbott, Benson, 1996; Dionne, 1988)

 

1923

Canada deals directly with U.S. without British participation in signing Halibut Treaty. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1925

Delegation of Maritime businessmen and politicians travels to Ottawa to lobby for Maritime Rights. (Francis and Smith, 1986; Lower, 1977; Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1926

Old age pension instituted by federal government. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Doctor Donald Gordon Hodd arrives to take up residence as chief medical officer at the Grenfell Mission Hospital at Harrington. Click here / cliquez ici for details on Dr. Hodd. (Among The Deep Sea Fishers)

 

The commencement of the winter sports day called "The Races" at Harrington Harbour. (Coasters, 1999)

 

1927

The Lower North Shore population of English origin receives its first teachers trained at the Universities of Bishop and McGill. (Dionne, 1988). The Coast had a long list of teachers, both formally and informally trained.

 

1928

The first non-stop east to west Trans Atlantic flight crash-lands at Greenly Island near Blanc Sablon, Quebec. Click here / cliquez ici for details of this flight. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989; Antonio Cormier, 2000)

 

1929

New York Stock Market crash. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1931

Statute of Westminster grants Canada full autonomy from Britain. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

William Anderson receives government assistance to work the first ever experimental farm on the Lower North Shore, at Cross River. Click here / cliquez ici for more details on the farm. (Anderson, 1980)

 

1932

Second Anglican St Clement's Church consecrated at Mutton Bay. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1933

Newfoundland Assembly votes to suspend self-government; British appoint "Commission of Government". (Prowse, 1895; Major, 2001)

 

1939

Canada enters World War II after remaining neutral for 1 week; pro-war party in Quebec wins provincial election. Many persons from the Lower North Shore left the Coast to support the war effort. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1942

Construction boom due to American and Canadian military bases eliminates unemployment in Newfoundland. (Major, 2001)

 

1945

George Whiteley sold Bonne Esperance fishing premises to the Standard Fish Company of Montreal. (Whiteley, 1977)

 

1949

Newfoundland becomes Canada's tenth province on 31 March. (Powse, 1895; Major, 2001)

 

Dispensaries with resident nurses are set up in all the villages of the Lower North Shore. The first of it’s kind was set up in Mutton Bay in the 1930s by the Grenfell Mission. (Dionne, 1988)

 

A new hospital opened in Harrington Harbour to replace the structure built in 1907. (Among the Deep Sea Fishers)

 

1950

Opening of the first hospital at Lourdes de Blanc Sablon. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1951

Mid-century census records Canada's population as 14 million. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1952

First television stations in Canada begin broadcasting in Montreal and Toronto; Television did not arrive on the Coast until mid-1970s.

 

Second Anglican Christ Church consecrated in Harrington Harbour.  (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1955

Second Anglican St Augustine's Church consecrated in St Augustine. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1955

Foundation of the first Desjardins Credit Union at Lourdes de Blanc Sablon. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1956

Foundation of the first Credit Union at Whale Head. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1957

The arrival of two large boats of the Gaspesienne type signals of the so called improvements in the fishing methods on the Lower North Shore. (Dionne, 1988)

 

St. Lawrence Seaway opens. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Anglican St Pillip's  Church in Kegaska consecrated. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1960

"Quiet Revolution" begins in Quebec. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Livyers from Harrington Harbour and the surroundings islands move to Chevery to create a new community. (Ransom, 1985)

 

The arrival to the Lower North Shore of a new and revolutionary means of work and travel - the snowmobile. (Dionne, 1988)

 

Arrival on the Coast of Anglican Minister, Rev. Robert A. Bryan, and the establishment of an aerial ministry on the Lower North Shore, which continues to this day(click here / cliquez ici).  He established the Quebec Labrador Mission Foundation (later, the Quebec Labrador Foundation or QLF) to bring social, environmental and educational change to the area.

 

1961

Through the intervention of the Economic Council, a helicopter is stationed at St. Augustine on the Lower North Shore at the service of the sick during winter months. Soon it is stationed for this purpose on the Lower North Shore for the whole of the year (click here / cliquez ici). (Dionne, 1988)

 

First General Assembly of representatives of all the villages of the Lower North Shore and the setting up of the Economic Council of the Lower North Shore. Dr. Hodd first elected president of the Economic Council. (Dionne, 1988)

 

Anglican St. Andrew's Church consecrated at La Tabatiere. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1962

Trans-Canada Highway officially opens. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1963

Bill 43 constitutes the Municipality of the North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Gaston Bergeron named first Administrator of this extensive municipality. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1963

Fall sees the beginning of the Winter Works Program, a government-sponsored program that would continue for four consecutive years and bring to the Lower North Shore a sum of more than four million dollars. This is the beginning of make-work initiatives for the Lower North Shore. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1964

The Economic Council obtains from the Clark Steamship Company the services of a faster passenger-freight boat and a once a week trip from Rimouski gives people of the Lower North Shore access to fresh fruit, vegetables and milk..

 

Northern Wings Company begins a regular postal and passenger service in the summer months. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1965

Ground fish landings in Northwest Atlantic peak at 2.8 million tons. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Quebec Telephone Company installs the first modern short-wave telephone network throughout the Lower North Shore. (Dionne, 1988)

 

Second Anglican St Paul's Church consecrated in St Paul's River. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1967

On the Lower North Shore, Bill 41 grants universal access to higher schools of study.

 

Third Anglican St Augustine's Church consecrated in St Augustine. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1969

The federal government becomes officially bilingual. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1970

The FLQ, a militant separatist group in Quebec, kidnaps British diplomat & murders Quebec cabinet minister. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

The first Lower North Shore school board, Commission de Scholaire de Cote Nord, is formed and the Quebec Government makes it possible for North Shore students to complete their high school education off the Coast, signaling the official start of "out migration". (Dionne, 1988)

 

1970

Doctor Donald Gordon Hodd officially retires after forty-four years of service to the Lower North Shore. (Among The Deep Sea Fishers)

 

Anglican St. Peter's Church consecrated in Old Fort. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

The Quebec government takes over the Harrington Hospital and thus ends 65 years of medical care by the Grenfell Mission. (Among The Deep Sea Fishers)

 

1972

Anglican St. Michael's and All Angels Church consecrated in Chevery. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

Anglican St. Christopher's Church consecrated in Bradore. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1973

A tragic helicopter accident deprives the Lower North Shore of its first indigenous Doctor, Camille Marcoux, a native son of Whale Head. Click here / cliquez ici for more details. (Dionne, 1988)

 

Fire destroys the Elizabeth United Church in Harrington Harbour. (Sextant, 1973)

 

1976 Canada announces 200-nautical-mile coastal fishing zone. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

Parti Quebecois under Rene Levesque wins Quebec provincial election on separatist platform. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1978

Television service begins on the Lower North Shore. (Dionne, 1988)

 

United St. Elizabeth Church built in Aylmer Sound. Click here / cliquez ici for a picture. (Anderson, 2005)

 

1978

Nomination of Richmond Monger, a son of the Lower North Shore, as administrator of the municipality. (Dionne, 1988)

 

1979

The third Anglican St Paul's Church consecrated in St Paul's River. (Rev. C. Patterson; Reisner, 1995)

 

1980

The majority of Quebecers reject separation from Canada in a referendum vote. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1981

Quebec bans public signs in English. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1982

New Canadian Constitution is ratified by every province except Quebec. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

1984

Brian Mulroney, a bilingual lawyer from Quebec, leads Conservatives to biggest landslide in Canadian History. (Canadian World Almanac, 1989)

 

References Used:

 

The timeline was adapted from a WebSite by Trenton, Ontario. It’s introduction indicated that it was adapted from Atlantic Canadian history class assignments by Mount Allison University between 1991 and 1993, and from "Notable dates in Canadian History", The Canadian World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1989 Toronto (Toronto: Global Press, 1988), pp. 21-27.

 

Abbott, Louise, Kent Benson, Visions of the Lower North Shore, CD-ROM - An Annotated Inventory of Archival Stills and Motion-Picture Footage, 1996

 

Anderson, (Alfred, Samuel, Reginald), personal communications

 

Boyer, Elizabeth, Colony of One, Veritie Press, Ohio, 1983

 

Canadian World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1989 Toronto (Toronto: Global Press, 1988), pp. 21-27.

 

Charest, Paul, Cultural Ecology of the North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Department of Anthropology, Univerity of Laval, 1967

 

Charest, Paul, Historie Demographie et Genealogies Des Premeries Populations Permanentes de la Basse Côte Nord, 1820 - 1900; de Kegaska à Blanc-Sablon, 1967

 

Charest, Paul, Les Inuit de Labrador Canadien au melieu du siecle dernier et leurs descendants de la Basse Côte Nord, 1967

 

Coasters Association Inc, A Country so Wild and Grand, 1999

 

Dickinson, John A., Young, Brian, A Short History of Quebec, Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1993

 

Dionne, Gabriel, In a Breaking Wave, Les Missionnaires Oblates de Marie Immaculée, 1988

 

Fitzhugh, W. The Gateways Project 2003-2004, Surveys and Excavations from Hare Harbour to Jacques Cartier Bay, Artic Studies Center, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 

 

Grenfell, Wilfred; Labrador: The Country and The People, MacMillan, New York, 1909

 

Hind, Henry Youle: Exploration in the Interior of the Labrador Penninsula, vol. 1-2, Longman Green, London, 1863

 

International Grenfell Mission, Among The Deep Sea Fishers, Ottawa; quarterly magazine discontinued in 1980s

 

Jackson, Lawrence; Bounty of a Barren Coast, Resource Harvest and Settlement In Southern Labrador, MUN, St. John’s, 1982

 

Lower Arthur R. M; Colony to Nation, McCelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1946

 

Morison, Samuel Eliot, The Great Explorers, Oxford University Press, New York, 1978

 

Ransom, (David (sr); Albert; William; Marion; Benjamin), Personal communication

 

Reisner, M. E; Strangers and Pilgrims, Anglican Book Centre, Toronto, 1946

 

Romkey, Bill, The Story of Labrador, McGill-Queens University Press, 2003

 

Sextant, Newspaper of the Lower North Shore, 1973

 

Sinclair, Gilbert William, The Wreck of The Essex on Labrador - Log of the Able Seaman, November 1874; provided to Gilbert Jones Sr., Wolf Bay, Labrador (now Quebec)

 

Whelan, David, Just One Interloper after Another, Historical Development Corporation, Labrador Straits, 1990

 

Whiteley, Albert S., A Century on Bonne Esperance, Cheriton Graphics, Ottawa, 1977

 

Withington, Alfreda, Mine Eyes Have Seen - A Woman Doctor’s Saga, E. P. Dutton & Co. Inc., New York, 1941; the first female doctor to work with Dr. Grenfell; worked at Blanc-Sablon and later Battle Harbour

 

Date Entered on Web Site: 12 May 2002
Updated: 28 May 2002, 07 July 2002, 28 September 2002, 01 October 2002, 19 October 2002, 14 December 2002, 19 Feb 2003, 26 December 2004, 27 December 2004, 13 March 2005

 

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